Dr. Willie Soon


Academic Qualifications




Editorial boards


Social media



  1. R. Connolly, W. Soon, M. Connolly, S. Baliunas, J. Berglund, C. J. Butler, R. G. Cionco, A. G. Elias, V. M. Fedorov, H. Harde, G. W. Henry, D. V. Hoyt, O. Humlum, D. R. Legates, S. Lüning, N. Scafetta, J.-E. Solheim, L. Szarka, H. van Loon, V. M. Velasco Herrera, R. C. Willson, H. Yan and W. Zhang (2021). How much has the Sun influenced Northern Hemisphere temperature trends? An ongoing debate. Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics (accepted for publication).
  2. X.H. Zhao, W. Soon, V. M. Velasco Herrera, Holocene millennial-scale solar variability and the climatic responses on Earth, Universe, 7, 36 (2021) https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7020036. pdf.
  3. X.H. Zhao, W. Soon, V. M. Velasco Herrera, Evidence for solar modulation on the millennial-scale climate change of Earth, Universe, 6, 153 (2020) https://doi.org/10.3390/universe6090153. pdf.
  4. S. Qiu, N. Wang, W. Soon, G. Lu, M. Jia, X. Dou, Sporadic sodium layers: A possible tracer for the conjunction between the upper and lower atmosphere, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, December 29 (2020) https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-1079. pdf.
  5. C.C. Liu, H. Yan, H.B. Fei, G. Shi, P. Cheng, H.F. Wen, S.G. Kang, M. Li, W. Soon, J. Dodson, W.J. Zhou, Z.Sh. An, Dynamic of Tridacna spp. population variability in northern SCS over past 4500 years derived from AMS 14C dating, Science of the Total Environment, 748, 141359 (2020) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141359. pre-print pdf
  6. C. ÓhAiseadha, G. Quinn, R. Connolly, M. Connolly and W. Soon. Energy and climate policy — An evaluation of global climate change expenditure 2011–2018. Energies, 13, 4839 (2020)  https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184839. pdf.
  7. R. Connolly, M. Connolly, R.M. Carter and W. Soon. How much human-caused global warming should we expect with business-as-usual (BAU) climate policies? A semi-empirical assessment. Energies, 13, 1365 (2020) https://doi.org/10.3390/en13061365. pdf.
  8. T. Heredia, F. Bazzano, R. G. Cionco, W. Soon, F. Medina, and A. Elias, Searching for solar-like interannual to bidecadal effects on temperature and precipitation over a Southern Hemisphere location, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 193, 105094 (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2019.105094. pre-print pdf
  9. R. Connolly, M. Connolly, W. Soon, D.R. Legates, R.G. Cionco and V. M. Velasco Herrera. Northern hemisphere snow-cover trends (1967-2018): A comparison between climate models and observations. Geosciences, 9(3), 135 (2019) https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9030135. pdf.


Other publications

  1. Victor Velasco Herrera, Willie Soon, David R. Legates, Does machine learning reconstruct missing sunspots and forecast a new solar minimum?, Advances in Space Research, in press (2021).https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2021.03.023
  2. Laszlo Szarka, Willie Soon, Rodolfo Gustavo Cionco, How the astronomical aspects of climate science were settled? On the Milankovitch and Bacsák anniversaries, with lessons for today, Advances in Space Research, 67, 700-707 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2020.09.020
  3. Travis S. Metcalfe, Jennifer L. van Saders, Sarbani Basu, Derek Buzasi, William J. Chaplin, Ricky Egeland, Rafael A. Garcia, Patrick Gaulme, Daniel Huber, Timo Reinhold, Hannah Schunker, Keivan G. Stassun, Thierry Appourchaux, Warrick H. Ball, Timothy R. Bedding, Sebastien Deheuvels, Lucia Gonzalez-Cuesta, Rasmus Handberg, Antonio Jimenez, Hans Kjeldsen, Tanda Li, Mikkel N. Lund,Savita Mathur, Benoit Mosser, Martin B. Nielsen, Anthony Noll, Zeynep Celik Orhan, Sibel Ortel, Angela R. G. Santos, Mutlu Yildiz, Sallie Baliunas, Willie Soon, The evolution of rotation and magnetic activity in 94 Aqr Aa from Asteroseismology with TESS, Astrophysical Journal, 900: 154 (2020). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aba963
  4. Rodolfo Gustavo Cionco, Willie Soon, Ana G. Elias, and Nancy Esther Quaranta, Latitudinal insolation gradients throughout the Holocene II-High frequency variations, Advances in Space Research, 66, 1992-2000 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2020.07.008
  5. Rodolfo  Gustavo  Cionco,  Willie  Soon,  and  Nancy  Esther  Quaranta,  On  the calculation of latitudinal insolation gradients throughout the Holocene: A new tool for solar forcing simulations, Advances in Space Research, 66, 720-742 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2020.04.030
  6. Suyog Garg, Bidya Binay Karak, Ricky Egeland, Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Waldmeier effect in stellar cycles, Astrophysical Journal, 886, 132 (2019). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab4a17
  7. Willie Soon, Ronan Connolly, Michael  Connolly,  Peter  O’Neill,  Jingyun  Zheng, Quansheng Ge, Zhixin Hao and Hong Yan (2019). Reply to Li & Yang’s comments on “Comparing the current and early 20th century warm periods in China”. Earth-Science Reviews, 189, 102950. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2019.102950.
  8. ChengCheng Liu, Hong Yan, Haobei Fei, Xiaolin Ma, Wenchao Zhang, Ge Shi, Willie  Soon,  John  Dodson,  Zhisheng  An,  Temperature  seasonality  and  ENSO variability in northern South China Sea during Medieval Climate Anomaly interval as derived from the Sr/Ca ratios of Tridacna shell, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 180, 103880 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2019.103880
  9. W. Soon, V.M. Velasco Herrera, R. G. Cionco, S. Qiu, S. Baliunas, R. Egeland, G. Henry, Co-variations of chromospheric and photometric variability of the young Sun analog HD 30495:  Evidence for and interpretation of mid-term periodicities, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical  Society,  483:  2748-2757  (2019). https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/sty3290
  10. Shican Qiu, Willie Soon, Xiankang Dou, Xianghui Xie, Tao Li, Wanyin Wang, Mingjiao  Jia,  Chao  Ban,  Xin  Fang,  and  Yihuan  Tang,  Sudden  sodium  layers: Their  appearance  and  disappearance,  Journal  of  Geophysical  Research: Space Physics, 123, 10.1029/2017JA024883 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JA024883
  11. Willie Soon,  Ronan  Connolly,  Michael  Connolly,  Peter  O’Neill,  Jingyun  Zheng, Quansheng  Ge,  Zhixin  Hao  and  Hong  Yan,  Comparing  the  current  and  early 20th  century  warming  periods  in  China,  Earth-Science  Reviews,  185,  80- 101 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2018.05.013
  12. V.M. Velasco Herrera, J. Perez-Peraza, W. Soon, and J.C. Marquez-Adame, The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation of 1.7 years in Ground Level Enhancement Events, New Astronomy, 60, 7-13 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.newast.2017.09.007
  13. Rodolfo Gustavo Cionco, Jose Ernesto Valentini, Nancy Esther Quaranta, and Willie Soon, Lunar fingerprints in the modulated incoming solar radiation:  In- situ insolation and latitudinal insolation gradients as two important interpretive metrics  for  paleoclimatic  data  records  and  theoretical  climate  modeling,  New Astronomy, 58, 96-106 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.newast.2017.08.003
  14. Ronan Connolly,  Michael  Connolly,  and  Willie  Soon,  Re-calibration  of  Arctic sea ice extent datasets using Arctic surface air temperature records, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 62, 1317-1340 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2017.1324974
  15. Rodolfo Gustavo Cionco, and Willie Soon, Short-term Orbital Forcing:  A quasi- review and a reappraisal of realistic boundary conditions for climate modeling, Earth-Science Reviews, 166, 206-222 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.01.013
  16. Ricky Egeland, Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Jefferey Hall, Alexei Pevtsov, and Luca Bertello, The Mount Wilson Observatory S-Index of the Sun, Astrophysical Journal, 835: 25 (16 pp) (2017). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/25
  17. Velasco Herrera V.M., Soon, W., Velasco Herrera G., Traversi R and Horiouchi K, Generalization of the cross-wavelet functions, New Astronomy, 56, 86-93 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.newast.2017.04.012
  18. K. Olah, Zs. Kovari, K. Petrovay, W. Soon, S. Baliunas, Z. Kollath, K. Vida, Magnetic cycles at different ages of stars,  Astronomy  & Astrophysics, 590, A133 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201628479
  19. Willie Soon, Ronan Connolly, Michael Connolly, Re-evaluating the role of solar variability on Northern Hemisphere temperature trends since the 19th century, Earth-Science Reviews, 150, 409-452 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.08.010
  20. I. G. Usoskin, et al.  (with Willie Soon as one co-author), The Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) was indeed a grand minimum: A reassessment of multiple datasets, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 581, A95 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526652
  21. C.  Monckton  of  Brenchley,  W.  Soon,  D.  R.  Legates,  W.M.  Briggs,  Keeping  it simple: the value of an irreducibly simple climate model, Science Bulletin, 60, 1378-1390 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11434-015-0856-2
  22. W.  Soon,  and  D.  R.  Legates,  Response  to  the  comment  on:  “Soon,  W.,  and Legates, D.R., solar irradiance modulation of equator-to-pole (Arctic) temperature gradients: empirical evidence for climate variation on multi-decadal timescales. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 93, (2013) 45-56” by F. Meunier and A. H. Reis”, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 128, 92-93 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2015.01.013
  23. Hong Yan, Wei Wei, Willie Soon, ZhiSheng An, WeiJian Zhou, ZhongHui Liu, YuHong  Wang,  Robert  M  Carter,  Dynamics  of  the  Intertropical  Convergence Zone over the Western Pacific During the Little Ice Age, Nature Geoscience, 8, 315-320 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2375
  24. C.  Monckton  of  Brenchley,  W.  Soon,  D.  R.  Legates,  W.M.  Briggs,  Why models run hot: results from an irreducibly simple climate model, Science Bulletin, 60, 122-135 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11434-014-0699-2
  25. Hong  Yan,  Willie  Soon,  YuHong  Wang, A  composite  sea  surface  temperature record of the northern South China Sea for the past 2500 years: A unique look into seasonality and seasonal climate changes during warm and cold periods, Earth- Science Reviews, 141, 122-135 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2014.12.003
  26. K. M. Hiremath, H. Manjunath, and W. Soon, Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall: Dancing with the Tunes of the Sun, New Astronomy, 35, 8-19 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.newast.2014.08.002
  27. Rodolfo  Gustavo  Cionco,  and  Willie  Soon,  A  phenomenological  study  of  the timing of solar activity minima of the last millennium through a physical modeling of the Sun-Planets Interactions, New Astronomy, 34, 164-171 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.newast.2014.07.001
  28. D. R. Legates, W. Soon, W.M. Briggs, and C. Monckton of Brenchley, Climate consensus and misinformation: A rejoinder to Agnotology, Scientific Consensus, and the Teaching and Learning of Climate Change, Science and Education, 24, 299-318 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11191-013-9647-9
  29. David R. Legates, Willis Eschenbach, and Willie Soon, Arctic albedo changes are small compared with changes in cloud cover in the tropics (Letter), Proceedings of the (U.S.) National Academy of Sciences, 111, E2157-E2158 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1404997111
  30. Willie Soon, Victor Velasco, Selvaraj Kandasamy, Rita Traversi, Ilya G Usoskin, Chen-Tung A Chen, Jiann-Yuh Lou, Shuh-Ji Kao, Robert M Carter, Valery Pipin, Mirko Severi, Silvia Becagli, A review of Holocene solar-linked climatic variation on centennial to millennial timescales: Physical processes, interpretative frame- works  and  a  new  multiple  cross-wavelet  transform  algorithm,  Earth-Science Reviews, 134, 1-15 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2014.03.003
  31. W.  Soon, and  D.  R.  Legates, Solar  Irradiance  Modulation  of  Equator-to-Pole (Arctic) Temperature Gradients: Empirical Evidence for Climate Variation on Multi-decadal Timescales, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 93, 45-56 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2014.03.003
  32. D. R. Legates, W. Soon, and W.M. Briggs, Learning and teaching climate science:  The perils of consensus knowledge using agnotology, Science and Education, 22, 2007-2017 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11191-013-9588-3
  33. W.  Soon,  K.  Dutta,  D.  R.  Legates,  V.  Velasco,  and  W.  Zhang,  Variation  in Surface  Air  Temperature  of  China  During  the  20th  Century,  Journal  of  Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 73, 2331-2344 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2011.07.007
  34. R.  Agnihotri,  K.  Dutta,  and  W.  Soon,  Temporal  Derivative  of  Total  Solar  Irradiance and Anomalous Indian Summer Monsoon: An Empirical Evidence for a Sun-Climate Connection, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 73, 1980-1987 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2011.06.006
  35. J. S. Armstrong, K. C. Green, W. Soon, Research on Forecasting for the Man-made Global Warming Alarm, Energy & Environment, 22,  1091-1104 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1260/0958-305X.22.8.1091
  36. W. Soon and D. R. Legates, Avoiding carbon myopia:  Three considerations for policy makers concerning manmade carbon dioxide, Ecology Law Currents, 37, 1-9 (2010). https://heinonline.org/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/ecolwcur37&section=3
  37. M. M. Katsova, M. A. Livshits, W. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, and D. D. Sokoloff, Differential  Rotation  of  some  HK-Project  stars  and  the  butterfly  diagrams, New Astronomy, 15, 274-281 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.newast.2009.08.003
  38. K. Olah, Z. Kollath, T. Granzer, K. G. Strassmeier, A. F. Lanza, S. Jarvinen, H. Korhonen, S. L. Baliunas, W. Soon, S, Messina, and G. Cutispoto, Multiple and changing cycles of active stars.  II. Results, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 501, 701-713 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/200811304
  39. K. C. Green, J. S. Armstrong, W. Soon, Validity of climate change forecasting for public policy decision making, International Journal of Forecasting, 25, 826-832 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijforecast.2009.05.011
  40. W. Soon, Comments on HESS Opinion ’A random walk on water’ by D. Koutsoyiannis, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 6, C2852- C2856 (2009). https://hess.copernicus.org/articles/14/585/2010/hess-14-585-2010-discussion.html
  41. W.  Soon,  Solar  Arctic-mediated  climate  variation  on  multidecadal  to  centennial timescales: Empirical evidence, mechanistic explanation, and testable consequences, Physical Geography, 30, 144-184 (2009). https://doi.org/10.2747/0272-3646.30.2.144
  42. J. Liu, B. Wang, Q. Ding, X. Kuang, W. Soon, E. Zorita, Centennial variations of the global monsoon precipitation in the last millennium: Results from ECHO-G model, Journal of Climate, 22, 2356-2371 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2353.1
  43. M. Dyck, W. Soon (as co-first authors) et al., “Response to Dyck et al.  (2007) on polar bears and climate change in western Hudson Bay by Stirling et al.  (2008)”, Ecological Complexity, 5, 289-302 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecocom.2008.05.004
  44. J.  S.  Armstrong,  K.  C.  Green,  W.  Soon,  Polar  bear  population  forecasts:   A public-policy forecasting audit, Interfaces, 38, 382-405 (2008) (plus 3 comments and our reply). https://doi.org/10.1287/inte.1080.0383
  45. G. W. Lockwood, B. A. Skiff, G. W. Henry, S. Henry, R.R. Radick, S.L. Baliunas, R.A. Donahue, and W. Soon, Patterns of photometric and chromospheric variations among sun-like  stars:  A  20-year  perspective,  Astrophysical  J.  Suppl. Series, 171, 260-303 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1086/516752
  46. W. Soon, Implications of the secondary role of carbon dioxide and methane forcing  in  climate  change:  Past,  present,  and  future,  Physical  Geography,  28, 97-125 (2007). https://doi.org/10.2747/0272-3646.28.2.97
  47. M. Dyck,  W. Soon (as co-first authors) et al.  Polar Bears of Western Hudson Bay and Climate Change:  Warming Spring Air Temperatures as the ‘Ultimate’ Survival Control Factor?, Ecological Complexity, 4, 73-84 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecocom.2007.03.002
  48. K. Olah, K. G. Strassmeier, T. Granzer, W. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, Changing stellar activity cycles, Astronomische Nachrichten, 328, 1072-1074 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.200710839
  49. S. Baliunas, P. Frick, D. Moss, E. Popova, D. Sokoloff and W. Soon (alphabetical listing), Anharmonic and standing dynamo waves:  Theory and observation of stellar magnetic activity, Monthly Notices of the Royal  Astronomical Society, 365, 181 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09701.x
  50. W. Soon, Variable solar irradiance as a plausible agent for multidecadal variations in the Arctic-wide surface air temperature record of the past 130 years, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, (2005). https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL023429
  51. S. Baliunas, P. Frick, D. Moss, E. Popova, D. Sokoloff and W. Soon (alphabetical listing), Anharmonicity of Stellar Cycles:  A wavelet quantification, Solar Physics, 224, 179 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-005-4992-8
  52. P. Frick, W. Soon, E. Popova and S. Baliunas, Time-spectra of chromospheric activity of old solar-type stars: Detection of rotational signals from Double Wavelet Analysis, New Astronomy, 9, 599 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.newast.2004.03.005
  53. J. Lin and W. Soon, Evolution of Morphological Features of CMEs Deduced from Catastrophe Model of Solar Eruptions, New Astronomy, 9, 611 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.newast.2004.04.004
  54. W. Soon, D. R. Legates and S. Baliunas, Estimation and Representation of Long- Term (> 40 years) Trends of Northern-Hemisphere-Gridded Surface Temperature: A Note of Caution, Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L03209 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL019141
  55. W. Soon,  S. Baliunas,  and D. R. Legates,  Comment on “On Past Temperature and Anomalous Late-20th Century Warmth”, Eos, 84 (no.  44), 473 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1029/2003EO440007
  56. W. Soon, S. Baliunas, C. Idso, S. Idso and D. R. Legates, Reconstructing Climatic and Environmental Changes of the Past 1000 Years:  A Reappraisal, Energy & Environment, 14, 233 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1260/095830503765184619
  57. W.  Soon  and  S.  Baliunas,  Annual  Progress  Report  on  Global  Warming:  2001- 2002, Progress in Physical Geography, 27, 448 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1191/0309133303pp391pr
  58. W. Soon, S. Baliunas, S. B. Idso, K. Ya. Kondratyev, and E. S. Posmentier, Reply to Comments on“Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions: Unknowns  and  uncertainties”  by  D.  J.  Karoly,  J.  F.  B.,  Mitchell,  M.  Allen,  G. Hegerl, J. Marengo, F. Zwiers, Climate Research, 24, 93 (2003). https://www.int-res.com/articles/cr2003/24/c024p093.pdf http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/cr024093
  59. W. Soon and S. Baliunas, Climatic and Environmental Changes of the Last 1000 Years, Climate Research, 23, 89 (2003). https://doi.org/10.3354/cr023089
  60. J. Lin, W. Soon and S. Baliunas, Theories of Solar Eruptions:  A Review, New Astronomy Reviews, 47, 53 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1387-6473(02)00271-3
  61. J. Lin, W. Soon and S. Baliunas, Eruptive processes in the solar atmosphere and the theories, (in Chinese), Chinese Science Bulletin, 47, 1601-1612 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1360/csb2002-47-21-1601
  62. W. Soon, S. Baliunas, S. B. Idso, K. Ya. Kondratyev, and E. S. Posmentier, Reply to Comments on“Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions: Unknowns  and  uncertainties”  by  James  Risbey,  Climate  Research,  22,  187 (2002). https://www.int-res.com/articles/cr2002/22/c022p187.pdf
  63. W. Soon, S. Baliunas, S. B. Idso, K. Ya. Kondratyev, and E. S. Posmentier, Modeling climatic  effects of anthropogenic CO2  emissions:  Unknowns and un- certainties, Climate Research, 18, 259 (2001). https://www.int-res.com/abstracts/cr/v18/n3/p259-275/
  64. W. Soon, S. Baliunas, K. S. Demirchan, S. B. Idso, K. Ya. Kondratyev, and E. S. Posmentier, The impact of anthropogenic CO2 emission on climate:  Unresolved Problems (in Russian), Proceedings of the Russian Geographical Society, 133, 1 (2001).
  65. W. H. Soon, E. S. Posmentier, and S. L. Baliunas, Climate hypersensitivity to solar forcing ? Annales Geophysicae, 18, 583 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-000-0583-z
  66. W. H. Soon,  S. L. Baliunas,  E. S. Posmentier,  and P. N. Okeke,  Variations of solar coronal hole area and terrestrial lower tropospheric air temperature from 1979 to Mid-1998, New Astronomy, 4, 563 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1384-1076(00)00002-6
  67. G. W. Henry, S. L. Baliunas, R. A. Donahue, F. C. Fekel, and W. Soon, Photo- metric and Ca II H and K Spectroscopic Variations in Sun-like Stars with Planets III, Astrophysical J., 431, 415 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1086/308466
  68. E. S. Posmentier, W. H. Soon, and S. L. Baliunas (equal contribution by Posmentier and Soon), Natural variability in an-ocean-atmosphere climate model, Journal of Physics Malaysia, 19, 157 (2000).
  69. W. H. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, A. B. Robinson, and Z. W. Robinson, Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Climate Research, 13, 149 (1999). https://www.int-res.com/articles/cr/13/c013p149.pdf
  70. W.  Soon,  P.  Frick,  and  S.  Baliunas,  Lifetime  of  surface  features  and  stellar rotation:  A wavelet time-frequency approach, Astrophysical J. Letters, 510, L135 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1086/311805
  71. P. Frick, S. Baliunas, D. Galyagin, D. Sokoloff and W. Soon, Wavelet analysis of stellar chromospheric activity variations, Astrophysical J., 483, 426 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1086/304206
  72. S. Baliunas, P. Frick, D. Sokoloff and W. Soon (alphabetical listing with W. Soon as  lead  author),  Timescales  and  trends  in  the  Central  England  Temperature Data (1659-1990): A Wavelet Analysis, Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 1351 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1029/97GL01184
  73. S. L. Baliunas, G. W. Henry, R. A. Donahue, F. C. Fekel, and W. H. Soon, Properties of Sun-like Stars with Planets: ρ1 Cancri, τ Bootis, and υ Andromedae, Astrophysical J. Letters, 474, L119 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1086/310442
  74. G. W. Henry, S. L. Baliunas, R. A. Donahue, W. H. Soon, and S. H. Saar, Properties of Sun-like Stars with Planets: 51 Pegasi, 47 Ursae Majoris, 70 Virginis, and HD 114762, Astrophysical J., 474, 503 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1086/303451
  75. W. H. Soon, E. S. Posmentier, and S. L. Baliunas, Inference of solar irradiance variability from terrestrial temperature changes, 1880-1993: An astrophysical application of the sun-climate connection, Astrophysical J., 472, 891 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1086/178119
  76. S. L. Baliunas, E. Nesme-Ribes, D. D. Sokoloff, W. H. Soon (alphabetical listing with  W.  Soon  as  lead  author),  A  Dynamo  Interpretation  of  Stellar  Activity Cycles, Astrophysical J., 460, 848 (1996). http://adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1996ApJ...460..848B
  77. S. L. Baliunas, D. D. Sokoloff, W. H. Soon (alphabetical listing with W. Soon as  lead  author),  Magnetic  Field  and  Rotation  in  Lower  Main  Sequence  Stars: An Empirical Time-Dependent Magnetic Bode’s Relation?,  Astrophysical  J. Letters, 457, L99 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1086/309891
  78. S. L. Baliunas,  and W. H. Soon,  Are Variations in the Length of the Activity Cycle Related to Changes in Brightness in Solar-type Stars? Astrophysical J., 450, 896 (1995). http://adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1995ApJ...450..896B
  79. H. J. Choi,  W. H. Soon,  R. A. Donahue,  S. L. Baliunas,  and G. W. Henry,  A Study of Variability in a Sample of G–K Giants, Publications  of  the  Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 107, 744 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1086/133617
  80. V. C. Cristian, R. A. Donahue, W. H. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, and G. W. Henry, Pulsation Timescales and Amplitudes in a Sample of Bright Semi-Regular Variable Stars, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 107, 411 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1086/133569
  81. S. L. Baliunas, R. A. Donahue, W. H. Soon, J. H. Horne, and others, Chromospheric variations in main-sequence stars. II, Astrophysical J., 438, 269 (1995). http://adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1995ApJ...438..269B7
  82. W. H. Soon, S. L. Baliunas and Q. Zhang, Variations in surface activity of the Sun and solar-type stars, Solar Physics, 154, 385 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00681107
  83. Q. Zhang, W. H. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, G. W. Lockwood, B. A. Skiff and R. R. Radick, A method of determining possible brightness variation of the Sun in past centuries from observations of solar-type stars, Astrophysical J. Letters, 427, L111 (1994). http://adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1994ApJ...427L.111Z
  84. W.  H.  Soon,  Q.  Zhang,  S.  L.  Baliunas  and  R.  L.  Kurucz, The  Mount  Wilson Observatory metallicity index, CRV :  Comparison to other photometric systems, Astrophysical J., 416, 787 (1993). http://adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1993ApJ...416..787S
  85. W. H. Soon, S. L. Baliunas and Q. Zhang, An interpretation of cycle periods of stellar chromospheric activity, Astrophysical J. Letters, 414, L33 (1993). http://adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1993ApJ...414L..33S
  86. J. A. Kunc and W. H. Soon, Maximum principal quantum numbers of the atomic hydrogen in the solar chromosphere and photosphere, Astrophysical J., 396, 364 (1992). http://adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1992ApJ...396..364K
  87. W.  H.  Soon,  Analytical  cross  sections  and  rate  coefficients  for  H-H  inelastic collisions, Astrophysical J., 394, 717 (1992). http://adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1992ApJ...394..717S
  88. J.  A.  Kunc  and  W.  H.  Soon,  Analytical  ionization  cross  sections  for  atomic collisions, J. Chem.  Phys., 95, 5738 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.461622
  89. J. A. Kunc and W. H. Soon, Electron Boltzmann equation in non-thermal plasmas, Phys.  Rev.  A, 43, 4409 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.43.4409
  90. W. H. Soon and J. A. Kunc, Kinetics and continuum emission of negative atomic ions in partially-ionized plasmas, Phys.  Rev.  A, 43, 723 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.43.723
  91. W. H. Soon and J. A. Kunc,  Radiation of partially-ionized atomic hydrogen, Phys. Fluids B, 2, 2833 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.859352
  92. W. H. Soon and J. A. Kunc, Nitrogen-plasma continuum emission associated with N−(3P) and N−(1D) ions, Phys.  Rev.  A, 41, 4531 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.41.4531
  93. W. H. Soon and J. A. Kunc, Thermal nonequilibrium in partially-ionized atomic oxygen, Phys.  Rev.  A, 41, 825 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.41.825
  94. J.  A.  Kunc  and  W.  H.  Soon,  Collisional-radiative  nonequilibrium  in  partially- ionized atomic nitrogen, Phys.  Rev.  A, 40, 5822 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.40.5822