top of page
Michael Connolly.jpg

Dr. Michael Connolly

Dr. Michael Connolly is an independent scientist, based in Ireland.


Academic qualifications
  • B.Sc. (Hons.) in Chemistry with minor in Mathematics (University College Dublin, Ireland, 1971)

  • H.D.E. (University College Dublin, Ireland, 1972)

  • M.Sc. in Catalysis (Lakehead University, ON, Canada, 1974)

  • D.E.E. in Electronic Engineering (University College Dublin, Ireland, 1980)

  • Ph.D. in Spectroscopy (Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, 1989)



Academic Experience

Lecturer and tutor at third level in the fields of physics, chemistry, electronic engineering, computer science, mathematics, and statistics.


Trade Qualifications

I qualified as a plasterer in 1969, as an electrician in 1970 and have experience in all building trades. In 1975, I built our first house entirely on my own. The last time this house was sold it went for approx. $1 million. Since then, I have designed and built hundreds of buildings and houses.


Environmental expertise
  • 1975: Founding member of the Irish Solar Energy Society

  • 1989 - 1996: Together with my wife Dr. Imelda Connolly, we built, operated, and owned the National Aquarium which at the time was the top privately own tourist attraction in Ireland. Before selling the aquarium seven years later we had succeeded in breeding over 800 species of fish, which at the time, I believe was more than all the other aquariums in the world put together. We also received international acclaim for our success in rescuing, reviving, and rereleasing many destressed marine creatures such as endangered sea turtles and seals.

  • 1991 - 1999: I was an expert participant in a large number (hundreds) of nature and environmental radio and television programs (both live and recorded). During this period, I also acted as an environmental consultant to several multinational corporations (e.g. Coca Cola) and on several large redevelopment projects (e.g. The Custom House Quay redevelopment project in Dublin Ireland)

  • 2000 - 2010: Together with Imelda we owned and operated three research farms, carrying out research in wastewater treatment and sustainable aquaculture: (1) Union, Missouri, US; (2) Rathfarnham, Dublin, Ireland; (3) Offaly, Ireland. During this period, we were awarded several patents in the fields of sustainable aquaculture, wastewater treatment and heat exchangers. Sample Patents: International Patent No. WO2001026452A1US Patent No 6827036B2European Patent No. EP1220604B1Irish Patent No. 1220604Irish Patent No. 83848

  • 2010 - Present: Operating research farms in Dublin, Ireland; and Offaly, Ireland.

  • 2018 - Present: Center for Environmental Research and Earth Sciences (


Representative Patents


Peer-reviewed publications
  1. Michael Connolly, Orla Dingley, Ronan Connolly, Willie Soon (2024). "Comparing different tropopause estimates from high-resolution ozonesondes". Earth and Space Science. 11 (5), e2024EA003584. (Open access​).

  2. Gerry A. Quinn, Michael Connolly, Norman E. Fenton, Steven J. Hatfill, Paul Hynds, Coilín ÓhAiseadha, Karol Sikora, Willie Soon and Ronan Connolly (2024). "Influence of Seasonality and Public-Health Interventions on the COVID-19 Pandemic in Northern Europe" Journal of Clinical Medicine, 13, 334.​. Open access.

  3. W. Soon, R. Connolly, M. Connolly, S.-I. Akasofu, S. Baliunas, J. Berglund, A. Bianchini, W.M. Briggs, C.J. Butler, R.G. Cionco, M. Crok, A.G. Elias, V.M. Fedorov, F. Gervais, H. Harde, G.W. Henry, D.V. Hoyt, O. Humlum, D.R. Legates, A.R. Lupo, S. Maruyama, P. Moore, M. Ogurtsov, C. ÓhAiseadha, M.J. Oliveira, S.-S. Park, S. Qiu, G. Quinn, N. Scafetta, J.-E. Solheim, J. Steele, L. Szarka, H.L. Tanaka, M.K. Taylor, F. Vahrenholt, V.M. Velasco Herrera and W. Zhang (2023). "The Detection and Attribution of Northern Hemisphere Land Surface Warming (1850–2018) in Terms of Human and Natural Factors: Challenges of Inadequate Data", Climate, 11(9), 179; Open access​.

  4. R. Connolly, W. Soon, M. Connolly, S. Baliunas, J. Berglund, C.J. Butler, R.G. Cionco, A.G. Elias, V. Fedorov, H. Harde, G.W. Henry, D.V. Hoyt, O. Humlum, D.R. Legates, N. Scafetta, J.-E. Solheim, L. Szarka, V.M. Velasco Herrera, H. Yan and W.J. Zhang (2023). "Challenges in the detection and attribution of Northern Hemisphere surface temperature trends since 1850". Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics🗄️​​). Supplementary Materials.

  5. C. ÓhAiseadha, G. A. Quinn, R. Connolly, A. Wilson, M. Connolly, W. Soon and P. Hynds (2023). Unintended Consequences of COVID-19 Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) for Population Health and Health Inequalities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(7), 5223. (Open access).

  6. V.M. Velasco Herrera, W. Soon, Š. Knoška, J.A. Perez-Peraza, R.G. Cionco, S.M. Kudryavtsev, S. Qiu, R. Connolly, M. Connolly, M. Švanda, J. Acosta Jara & G. Pietro Gregori (2022). The New Composite Solar Flare Index from Solar Cycle 17 to Cycle 24 (1937 – 2020). Solar Physics, 297, 108 (2022). Read-only access to full article. Pre-print version. Supplementary Materials​.

  7. O. Dingley, M. Connolly, R. Connolly and W. Soon (2022). A comparison of different metrics for analyzing the troposphere/stratosphere transitions using high-resolution ozonesondes. Environmental Science Proceedings, 19, 14. Proceedings of The 5th International Electronic Conference on Atmospheric Sciences. (Open access).

  8. P. O'Neill, R. Connolly, M. Connolly, W. Soon, B. Chimani, M. Crok, R. de Vos, H. Harde, P. Kajaba, P. Nojarov, R. Przybylak, D. Rasol, Oleg Skrynyk, Olesya Skrynyk, P. Štěpánek, A. Wypych and P. Zahradníček (2022). Evaluation of the homogenization adjustments applied to European temperature records in the Global Historical Climatology Network dataset. Atmosphere 13(2), 285; (🗄️)

  9. M. Connolly, R. Connolly, W. Soon, V. M. Velasco Herrera, R. G. Cionco and N. E. Quaranta (2021). Analyzing atmospheric circulation patterns using mass fluxes calculated from weather balloon measurements: North Atlantic region as a case study. Atmosphere 12(11), 1439; (🗄️)

  10. R. Connolly, W. Soon, M. Connolly, S. Baliunas, J. Berglund, C. J. Butler, R. G. Cionco, A. G. Elias, V. M. Fedorov, H. Harde, G. W. Henry, D. V. Hoyt, O. Humlum, D. R. Legates, S. Lüning, N. Scafetta, J.-E. Solheim, L. Szarka, H. van Loon, V. M. Velasco Herrera, R. C. Willson, H. Yan and W. Zhang (2021). How much has the Sun influenced Northern Hemisphere temperature trends? An ongoing debate. Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 21, 131. (🗄️)

  11. C. ÓhAiseadha, G. Quinn, R. Connolly, M. Connolly and W. Soon (2020). Energy and climate policy — An evaluation of global climate change expenditure 2011–2018. Energies, 13, 4839. (🗄️)

  12. R. Connolly, M. Connolly, R.M. Carter and W. Soon (2020). How much human-caused global warming should we expect with business-as-usual (BAU) climate policies? A semi-empirical assessment. Energies, 13, 1365. (🗄️

  13. R. Connolly, M. Connolly, W. Soon, D.R. Legates, R.G. Cionco and V. M. Velasco Herrera (2019). Northern hemisphere snow-cover trends (1967-2018): A comparison between climate models and observations. Geosciences, 9(3), 135. (🗄️)

Other publications
Climate science and environmental science

Other scientific disciplines (representative sample)
  • M. Bridge, Michael Connolly, D.R. Lloyd, D. Menzel (1987). Electron spectroscopic studies of pyridine on metal surfaces. Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular Spectroscopy, 43 (12) : 1473-1478.

  • Michael Connolly, J. Somers, M. Bridge, D.R. Lloyd (1987). Angular Resolved Photoemission Studies of Pyridine on Pt (111) – Evidence for α-pyridyl species. Surface Science, 185 (3) 559-568.

  • Michael Connolly, T. McCabe, D.R. Lloyd, E. Taylor (1989). Angle-Resolved Ups Studies on Cn on Cu(110) and Cu(100). Structure and Reactivity of Surfaces (pp. 319-326).

  • Michael Connolly, S. Connolly, T. McCabe, D. R. Lloyd (1999). Delphi: An Algorithm for Continuous Monitoring of Changes in Work Function Using and Electron Spectrometer. Measurement Science and Technology 10(3): 246.


Non peer-reviewed publications
Climate science and environmental science
  • R. Connolly and Michael Connolly (2014). Urbanization bias III. Estimating the extent of bias in the Historical Climatology Network datasets. Open Peer Review Journal, 34 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft)

  • R. Connolly and Michael Connolly (2014). Urbanization bias II. An assessment of the NASA GISS urbanization adjustment method. Open Peer Review Journal, 31 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft)

  • R. Connolly and Michael Connolly (2014). Urbanization bias I. Is it a negligible problem for global temperature estimates? Open Peer Review Journal, 28 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.2 (non peer reviewed draft)

  • Michael Connolly and R. Connolly (2014). The physics of the Earth’s atmosphere III. Pervective power. Open Peer Review Journal, 25 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft)

  • Michael Connolly and R. Connolly (2014). The physics of the Earth’s atmosphere II. Multimerization of atmospheric gases above the troposphere. Open Peer Review Journal, 22 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft)

  • Michael Connolly and R. Connolly (2014). The physics of the Earth’s atmosphere I. Phase change associated with tropopause. Open Peer Review Journal, 19 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft)

  • R. Connolly and Michael Connolly (2014). Global temperature changes of the last millennium. Open Peer Review Journal, 16 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 1.0

  • R. Connolly and Michael Connolly (2014). Has poor station quality biased U.S. temperature trend estimates? Open Peer Review Journal, 11 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft).

bottom of page