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Dr. Willie Soon

Dr. Willie Soon is an astrophysicist and a geoscientist based in Salem, Massachusetts, USA.

  • Parler
Academic Qualifications
  • 1991 Ph.D., University of Southern California, Aerospace Engineering (with distinction) Dissertation Topic: Nonequilibrium Kinetics in High-Temperature Gases.

  • 1987 M.Sc., University of Southern California, Aerospace Engineering.

  • 1985 B.Sc., University of Southern California, Aerospace Engineering (Cum Laude).


  • 2021-present: Visiting scientist at the Institute of Earth Physics and Space Science, Sopron, Hungary

  • 2018-present: Center for Environmental Research and Earth Sciences.

  • 1997-2022: Astrophysicist at the Solar, Stellar and Planetary Sciences Division of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). Staff page

  • 2018: Senior Visiting Professor at the Institute of Earth Environment, Xian, China (from June 15-July 2, 2018.)

  • 2013-2014: Senior Visiting Fellow (Grant No. MELRS1219) at the State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science at Xiamen University, China

  • 1992-2009: Astronomer at the Mount Wilson Observatory

  • 1999-2000: Visiting Professor at the Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies of the Universiti of Putra, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

  • 1991-1996: Post-doctoral Scientist at the Solar and Stellar Physics Division of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA)


Editorial boards
  • 2022-present: Review Editor on the Editorial Board of Quaternary Science, Geomorphology and Paleoenvironment (specialty section of Frontiers in Earth Science and Frontiers in Marine Science)

  • 2020-present: Editorial Board Member for Geoscience (MDPI).

  • 2002-2016: Receiving Editor for New Astronomy (Elsevier).

Social media
  1. Michael Connolly, Orla Dingley, Ronan Connolly, Willie Soon (2024). "Comparing different tropopause estimates from high-resolution ozonesondes". Earth and Space Science. 11 (5), e2024EA003584. (Open access​).

  2. Shican Qiu, Ruichao Li and Willie Soon (2024). "An Investigation on the Distribution of Martian Ionospheric Particles, Based on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN)". Universe 10(5), 196; Open access.

  3. Gerry A. Quinn, Michael Connolly, Norman E. Fenton, Steven J. Hatfill, Paul Hynds, Coilín ÓhAiseadha, Karol Sikora, Willie Soon and Ronan Connolly (2024). "Influence of Seasonality and Public-Health Interventions on the COVID-19 Pandemic in Northern Europe" Journal of Clinical Medicine, 13, 334.​. Open access

  4. Travis S. Metcalfe, Derek Buzasi, Daniel Huber, Marc H. Pinsonneault, Jennifer L. van Saders, Thomas R. Ayres, Sarbani Basu, Jeremy J. Drake, Ricky Egeland, Oleg Kochuknov, Pascal Petit, Steven H. Saar, Victor See, Keivan G. Stassun, YaGuang Li, Timothy R. Bedding, Sylvain N. Breton, Adam J. Finley, Rafael A. Garcia, Hans Kjeldsen, Martin B. Nielsen, J. M. Joel Ong, Jacob L. Rorsted, Amalie Stokholm, Mark L. Winther, Catherine A. Clark, Diego Godoy-Rivera, Ilya V. Ilyin, Klaus G. Strassmeier, Sallie Baliunas, Willie Soon (2023). "Asteroseismology and Spectropolarimetry of the Exoplanet Host Star Lambda Serpentis", The Astronomical Journal, 166, 167. Open access.

  5. Shican Qiu, Zhanming Zhang, Willie Soon, Victor Manuel Velasco Herrera, Xiankang Dou (2023). "An investigation on the ionospheric response to the volcanic explosion of Hunga Ha'apai, 2021", Journal of Geophysical Research Space Physics. 128 (11): e2023JA031731. (preprint here).

  6. Victor M. Velasco Herrera, Willie Soon, Neyla Babynets, Judit Murakozy, Andrey Tlatov, Yury A. Nagovitsyn, Shican Qiu, Michal Svanda, Policarpo Arol Velasco Herrera (2023). "Reconstructing Daily Group Sunspot Numbers Since the Maunder Minimum
    with Objective Inter-Calibration Algorithms", Advances in Space Research, in press. (preprint here).

  7. W. Soon, R. Connolly, M. Connolly, S.-I. Akasofu, S. Baliunas, J. Berglund, A. Bianchini, W.M. Briggs, C.J. Butler, R.G. Cionco, M. Crok, A.G. Elias, V.M. Fedorov, F. Gervais, H. Harde, G.W. Henry, D.V. Hoyt, O. Humlum, D.R. Legates, A.R. Lupo, S. Maruyama, P. Moore, M. Ogurtsov, C. ÓhAiseadha, M.J. Oliveira, S.-S. Park, S. Qiu, G. Quinn, N. Scafetta, J.-E. Solheim, J. Steele, L. Szarka, H.L. Tanaka, M.K. Taylor, F. Vahrenholt, V.M. Velasco Herrera and W. Zhang (2023). "The Detection and Attribution of Northern Hemisphere Land Surface Warming (1850–2018) in Terms of Human and Natural Factors: Challenges of Inadequate Data", Climate, 11(9), 179; Open access​.

  8. R. Connolly, W. Soon, M. Connolly, S. Baliunas, J. Berglund, C.J. Butler, R.G. Cionco, A.G. Elias, V. Fedorov, H. Harde, G.W. Henry, D.V. Hoyt, O. Humlum, D.R. Legates, N. Scafetta, J.-E. Solheim, L. Szarka, V.M. Velasco Herrera, H. Yan and W.J. Zhang (2023). "Challenges in the detection and attribution of Northern Hemisphere surface temperature trends since 1850". Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics🗄️​​). Supplementary Materials.

  9. S. Qiu, M. Shi, H. Yousof, W. Soon, M. Jia, X. Xue, T. Li, P. Ju and X. Dou (2023). "Solitary wave characteristics on the fine structure of mesospheric sporadic sodium layer". Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences, 10.

  10. S. Qiu, M. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Zhang, W. Soon and V.M. Velasco Herrera (2023). "An Investigation on the Ionospheric Response to the Volcanic Explosion of Hunga Ha’apai, 2022, Based on the Observations from the Meridian Project: The Plasma Drift Variations". Remote Sensing, 15(17), 4181;

  11. Shican Qiu, Xiao Zhang,  Willie Soon, Hamad Yousof (2023). "Three–dimensional inversion of corona structure and simulation of solar wind parameters based on the photospheric magnetic field deduced from Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG)". Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences. Vol. 10.

  12. Mengxi Shi, Shican Qiu, Willie Soon, Victor Manuel Velasco Herrera, Xianghui Xue, Tao Li, Xiankang Dou (2023). "Peculiar wave structure of mesospheric sporadic sodium layer observed by lidars in Hefei (31.8˚N, 117.3˚E) and Wuhan (30.5˚N, 114˚E), central China". Journal of Geophysical Research Atmosphere.🗄️​​)

  13. Shican Qiu, Mengzhen Yuan, Willie Soon, Victor Manuel Velasco Herrera, Zhanming Zhang, Chengyun Yang, Hamad Yousof,  Xiankang Dou (2023). "Solar-induced 27-day modulation on polar mesospheric cloud (PMC), based on the combined observations from SOFIE and MLS". Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences, 10.

  14. R. G. Cionco, S. M. Kudryavtsev, W. W.-H. Soon (2023). "Tidal Forcing on the Sun and the 11-Year Solar Activity Cycle". Solar Physics, 298, 70. (🗄️​​)

  15. C. ÓhAiseadha, G. A. Quinn, R. Connolly, A. Wilson, M. Connolly, W. Soon and P. Hynds (2023). Unintended Consequences of COVID-19 Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) for Population Health and Health Inequalities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(7), 5223. (Open access).

  16. Shican Qiu, Ning Wang, Willie Soon, Victor Manuel Velasco Herrera, Chengyun Yang and Xiankang Dou (2023). The Hemispheric Asymmetry of Gravity Wave Impact on the Polar Mesospheric Cloud, Based on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere Satellite. Atmosphere, 14(3), 419; (Open access).

  17. Shican Qiu, Yifei Xie, Mengxi Shi, Hamad Yousof, Willie Soon, Zhengyong Ren, Mingjiao Jia, Xiankang Dou (2022). Observations and Analysis of the Mid-Latitude Atmospheric Electric Field During Geomagnetic Activity. Journal of Geophysical Research Space Physics, 127 (11). (🗄️​)

  18. V.M. Velasco Herrera, W. Soon, Š. Knoška, J.A. Perez-Peraza, R.G. Cionco, S.M. Kudryavtsev, S. Qiu, R. Connolly, M. Connolly, M. Švanda, J. Acosta Jara & G. Pietro Gregori (2022). The New Composite Solar Flare Index from Solar Cycle 17 to Cycle 24 (1937 – 2020). Solar Physics, 297, 108 (2022). Read-only access to full article. Pre-print version. Supplementary Materials​.

  19. O. Dingley, M. Connolly, R. Connolly and W. Soon (2022). A comparison of different metrics for analyzing the troposphere/stratosphere transitions using high-resolution ozonesondes. Environmental Science Proceedings, 19, 14. Proceedings of The 5th International Electronic Conference on Atmospheric Sciences. (Open access).

  20. Shican Qiu, Zhiyong Zhang, Hamad Yousof, Willie Soon, Mingjiao Jia, Weiwei Tang and Xiankang Dou (2022) "The interplanetary origins of geomagnetic storm with Dstmin≤−50 nT during solar cycle 24 (2009–2019)", Advances in Space Research, 70 (7), 2047-2057. (🗄️​)

  21. Victor M. Velasco Herrera, Eduardo Antonio Rossello, Maria Julia Orgeira, Lucas Arioni, Willie Soon, Graciela Velasco, Laura Rosique-de la Cruz, Emmanuel Zuniga, Carlos Vera, "Long-Term Forecasting of Strong Earthquakes in North America, South America, Japan, Southern China and Northern India with Machine Learning", Frontiers in Earth Science, 10  (2022). (🗄️​)

  22. V. M. Velasco Hererra, R. Martell-Dubois, W. Soon, G. Velasco Hererra, S. Cerdeira-Estrada, E. Zúñiga and L. Rosique-de la Cruz. (2022). Predicting Atlantic hurricanes using machine learning. Atmosphere 13 (5), 707; (🗄️​)

  23. P. O'Neill, R. Connolly, M. Connolly, W. Soon, B. Chimani, M. Crok, R. de Vos, H. Harde, P. Kajaba, P. Nojarov, R. Przybylak, D. Rasol, Oleg Skrynyk, Olesya Skrynyk, P. Štěpánek, A. Wypych and P. Zahradníček (2022). Evaluation of the homogenization adjustments applied to European temperature records in the Global Historical Climatology Network dataset. Atmosphere 13(2), 285; (🗄️)

  24. V.M. Velasco Hererra, W. Soon, C. Pérez-Moreno, G. Velasco Herrera, R. Martell-Dubois, L. Rosique-de la Cruz, V.M. Fedorov, S. Cerdeira-Estrada, E. Bongelli and E. Zúñi (2022). Past and future of wildfires in Northern Hemisphere's boreal forests. Forest Ecology and Management 504, 119859; (🗄️)

  25. M. Connolly, R. Connolly, W. Soon, V. M. Velasco Herrera, R. G. Cionco and N. E. Quaranta (2021). Analyzing atmospheric circulation patterns using mass fluxes calculated from weather balloon measurements: North Atlantic region as a case study. Atmosphere 12(11), 1439; (🗄️)

  26. R. Connolly, W. Soon, M. Connolly, S. Baliunas, J. Berglund, C. J. Butler, R. G. Cionco, A. G. Elias, V. M. Fedorov, H. Harde, G. W. Henry, D. V. Hoyt, O. Humlum, D. R. Legates, S. Lüning, N. Scafetta, J.-E. Solheim, L. Szarka, H. van Loon, V. M. Velasco Herrera, R. C. Willson, H. Yan and W. Zhang (2021). How much has the Sun influenced Northern Hemisphere temperature trends? An ongoing debate. Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 21, 131. (🗄️)

  27. X.H. Zhao, W. Soon, V. M. Velasco Herrera (2021). Holocene millennial-scale solar variability and the climatic responses on Earth, Universe, 7, 36. (🗄️)

  28. S. Qiu, N. Wang, W. Soon, G. Lu, M. Jia, X. Dou (2021). Sporadic sodium layers: A possible tracer for the conjunction between the upper and lower atmosphere, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21, 11927–11940, 2021 (🗄️)

  29. X.H. Zhao, W. Soon, V. M. Velasco Herrera (2020). Evidence for solar modulation on the millennial-scale climate change of Earth, Universe, 6, 153. (🗄️)

  30. C.C. Liu, H. Yan, H.B. Fei, G. Shi, P. Cheng, H.F. Wen, S.G. Kang, M. Li, W. Soon, J. Dodson, W.J. Zhou, Z.Sh. An (2020). Dynamic of Tridacna spp. population variability in northern SCS over past 4500 years derived from AMS 14C dating, Science of the Total Environment, 748, 141359. (🗄️)

  31. C. ÓhAiseadha, G. Quinn, R. Connolly, M. Connolly and W. Soon (2020). Energy and climate policy — An evaluation of global climate change expenditure 2011–2018. Energies, 13, 4839. (🗄️)

  32. R. Connolly, M. Connolly, R.M. Carter and W. Soon (2020). How much human-caused global warming should we expect with business-as-usual (BAU) climate policies? A semi-empirical assessment. Energies, 13, 1365. (🗄️

  33. T. Heredia, F. Bazzano, R. G. Cionco, W. Soon, F. Medina, and A. Elias (2019). Searching for solar-like interannual to bidecadal effects on temperature and precipitation over a Southern Hemisphere location, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 193, 105094. (🗄️)

  34. R. Connolly, M. Connolly, W. Soon, D.R. Legates, R.G. Cionco and V. M. Velasco Herrera (2019). Northern hemisphere snow-cover trends (1967-2018): A comparison between climate models and observations. Geosciences, 9(3), 135. (🗄️)

  1. P. N. Okeke and W. Soon, Introduction to Astronomy (University of Nigeria Press, University Physics Series), 2004.

  2. W. Soon and S. H. Yaskell, The Maunder Minimum and The Variable Sun-Earth Connection, World Scientific Publishing Company, 2004

Other publications
  1. Victor M. Velasco Herrera, Willie Soon, Douglas V. Hoyt, Judit Murakozy, "Group Sunspot Numbers: A New Reconstruction of Sunspot Activity Variation from Historical Sunspot Recordings and with Algorithms from Machine Learning", Solar Physics,  297, #8 (2022).

  2. R. G. Cionco, S. M. Kudryavtsev, W. Soon, "Possible Origin of Some Periodicities Detected in Solar-Terrestrial Problems: Earth's Orbital Movements", Earth and Space Science, 8, e2021EA001805 (2021).

  3. Victor Velasco Herrera, Willie Soon, David R. Legates, Does machine learning reconstruct missing sunspots and forecast a new solar minimum?, Advances in Space Research, 68, 1485-1501 (2021).

  4. Travis S. Metcalfe, Jennifer L. van Saders, Sarbani Basu, Derek Buzasi, Jeremy J. Drake, Ricky Egeland, Daniel Huber, Steven H. Saar, Keivan G. Stassun, Warrick H. Ball, Tiago L. Campante, Adam J. Finley, O. Kochukhov, Savita Mathur, Benoit Mosser, Timo Reinhold, Victor See, Sallie Baliunas, Willie Soon, "Magnetic and Rotational Evolution of rho CrB from Asteroseismology with TESS", The Astrophysical Journal, 921: 122 (2021).

  5. Laszlo Szarka, Willie Soon, Rodolfo Gustavo Cionco, How the astronomical aspects of climate science were settled? On the Milankovitch and Bacsák anniversaries, with lessons for today, Advances in Space Research, 67, 700-707 (2021).

  6. Travis S. Metcalfe, Jennifer L. van Saders, Sarbani Basu, Derek Buzasi, William J. Chaplin, Ricky Egeland, Rafael A. Garcia, Patrick Gaulme, Daniel Huber, Timo Reinhold, Hannah Schunker, Keivan G. Stassun, Thierry Appourchaux, Warrick H. Ball, Timothy R. Bedding, Sebastien Deheuvels, Lucia Gonzalez-Cuesta, Rasmus Handberg, Antonio Jimenez, Hans Kjeldsen, Tanda Li, Mikkel N. Lund,Savita Mathur, Benoit Mosser, Martin B. Nielsen, Anthony Noll, Zeynep Celik Orhan, Sibel Ortel, Angela R. G. Santos, Mutlu Yildiz, Sallie Baliunas, Willie Soon, The evolution of rotation and magnetic activity in 94 Aqr Aa from Asteroseismology with TESS, Astrophysical Journal, 900: 154 (2020).

  7. Rodolfo Gustavo Cionco, Willie Soon, Ana G. Elias, and Nancy Esther Quaranta, Latitudinal insolation gradients throughout the Holocene II-High frequency variations, Advances in Space Research, 66, 1992-2000 (2020).

  8. Rodolfo  Gustavo  Cionco,  Willie  Soon,  and  Nancy  Esther  Quaranta,  On  the calculation of latitudinal insolation gradients throughout the Holocene: A new tool for solar forcing simulations, Advances in Space Research, 66, 720-742 (2020).

  9. Suyog Garg, Bidya Binay Karak, Ricky Egeland, Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Waldmeier effect in stellar cycles, Astrophysical Journal, 886, 132 (2019).

  10. Willie Soon, Ronan Connolly, Michael  Connolly,  Peter  O’Neill,  Jingyun  Zheng, Quansheng Ge, Zhixin Hao and Hong Yan (2019). Reply to Li & Yang’s comments on “Comparing the current and early 20th century warm periods in China”. Earth-Science Reviews, 189, 102950.

  11. ChengCheng Liu, Hong Yan, Haobei Fei, Xiaolin Ma, Wenchao Zhang, Ge Shi, Willie  Soon,  John  Dodson,  Zhisheng  An,  Temperature  seasonality  and  ENSO variability in northern South China Sea during Medieval Climate Anomaly interval as derived from the Sr/Ca ratios of Tridacna shell, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 180, 103880 (2019).

  12. W. Soon, V.M. Velasco Herrera, R. G. Cionco, S. Qiu, S. Baliunas, R. Egeland, G. Henry, Co-variations of chromospheric and photometric variability of the young Sun analog HD 30495:  Evidence for and interpretation of mid-term periodicities, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical  Society,  483:  2748-2757  (2019).

  13. Shican Qiu, Willie Soon, Xiankang Dou, Xianghui Xie, Tao Li, Wanyin Wang, Mingjiao  Jia,  Chao  Ban,  Xin  Fang,  and  Yihuan  Tang,  Sudden  sodium  layers: Their  appearance  and  disappearance,  Journal  of  Geophysical  Research: Space Physics, 123, 10.1029/2017JA024883 (2018).

  14. Willie Soon,  Ronan  Connolly,  Michael  Connolly,  Peter  O’Neill,  Jingyun  Zheng, Quansheng  Ge,  Zhixin  Hao  and  Hong  Yan,  Comparing  the  current  and  early 20th  century  warming  periods  in  China,  Earth-Science  Reviews,  185,  80- 101 (2018).

  15. V.M. Velasco Herrera, J. Perez-Peraza, W. Soon, and J.C. Marquez-Adame, The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation of 1.7 years in Ground Level Enhancement Events, New Astronomy, 60, 7-13 (2018).

  16. Rodolfo Gustavo Cionco, Jose Ernesto Valentini, Nancy Esther Quaranta, and Willie Soon, Lunar fingerprints in the modulated incoming solar radiation:  In- situ insolation and latitudinal insolation gradients as two important interpretive metrics  for  paleoclimatic  data  records  and  theoretical  climate  modeling,  New Astronomy, 58, 96-106 (2018).

  17. Ronan Connolly,  Michael  Connolly,  and  Willie  Soon,  Re-calibration  of  Arctic sea ice extent datasets using Arctic surface air temperature records, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 62, 1317-1340 (2017).

  18. Rodolfo Gustavo Cionco, and Willie Soon, Short-term Orbital Forcing:  A quasi- review and a reappraisal of realistic boundary conditions for climate modeling, Earth-Science Reviews, 166, 206-222 (2017).

  19. Ricky Egeland, Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Jefferey Hall, Alexei Pevtsov, and Luca Bertello, The Mount Wilson Observatory S-Index of the Sun, Astrophysical Journal, 835: 25 (16 pp) (2017).

  20. Velasco Herrera V.M., Soon, W., Velasco Herrera G., Traversi R and Horiouchi K, Generalization of the cross-wavelet functions, New Astronomy, 56, 86-93 (2017).

  21. K. Olah, Zs. Kovari, K. Petrovay, W. Soon, S. Baliunas, Z. Kollath, K. Vida, Magnetic cycles at different ages of stars,  Astronomy  & Astrophysics, 590, A133 (2016).

  22. Willie Soon, Ronan Connolly, Michael Connolly, Re-evaluating the role of solar variability on Northern Hemisphere temperature trends since the 19th century, Earth-Science Reviews, 150, 409-452 (2015).

  23. I. G. Usoskin, et al.  (with Willie Soon as one co-author), The Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) was indeed a grand minimum: A reassessment of multiple datasets, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 581, A95 (2015).

  24. C.  Monckton  of  Brenchley,  W.  Soon,  D.  R.  Legates,  W.M.  Briggs,  Keeping  it simple: the value of an irreducibly simple climate model, Science Bulletin, 60, 1378-1390 (2015).

  25. W.  Soon,  and  D.  R.  Legates,  Response  to  the  comment  on:  “Soon,  W.,  and Legates, D.R., solar irradiance modulation of equator-to-pole (Arctic) temperature gradients: empirical evidence for climate variation on multi-decadal timescales. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 93, (2013) 45-56” by F. Meunier and A. H. Reis”, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 128, 92-93 (2015).

  26. Hong Yan, Wei Wei, Willie Soon, ZhiSheng An, WeiJian Zhou, ZhongHui Liu, YuHong  Wang,  Robert  M  Carter,  Dynamics  of  the  Intertropical  Convergence Zone over the Western Pacific During the Little Ice Age, Nature Geoscience, 8, 315-320 (2015).

  27. C.  Monckton  of  Brenchley,  W.  Soon,  D.  R.  Legates,  W.M.  Briggs,  Why models run hot: results from an irreducibly simple climate model, Science Bulletin, 60, 122-135 (2015).

  28. Hong  Yan,  Willie  Soon,  YuHong  Wang, A  composite  sea  surface  temperature record of the northern South China Sea for the past 2500 years: A unique look into seasonality and seasonal climate changes during warm and cold periods, Earth- Science Reviews, 141, 122-135 (2015).

  29. K. M. Hiremath, H. Manjunath, and W. Soon, Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall: Dancing with the Tunes of the Sun, New Astronomy, 35, 8-19 (2015).

  30. Rodolfo  Gustavo  Cionco,  and  Willie  Soon,  A  phenomenological  study  of  the timing of solar activity minima of the last millennium through a physical modeling of the Sun-Planets Interactions, New Astronomy, 34, 164-171 (2015).

  31. D. R. Legates, W. Soon, W.M. Briggs, and C. Monckton of Brenchley, Climate consensus and misinformation: A rejoinder to Agnotology, Scientific Consensus, and the Teaching and Learning of Climate Change, Science and Education, 24, 299-318 (2015).

  32. David R. Legates, Willis Eschenbach, and Willie Soon, Arctic albedo changes are small compared with changes in cloud cover in the tropics (Letter), Proceedings of the (U.S.) National Academy of Sciences, 111, E2157-E2158 (2014).

  33. Willie Soon, Victor Velasco, Selvaraj Kandasamy, Rita Traversi, Ilya G Usoskin, Chen-Tung A Chen, Jiann-Yuh Lou, Shuh-Ji Kao, Robert M Carter, Valery Pipin, Mirko Severi, Silvia Becagli, A review of Holocene solar-linked climatic variation on centennial to millennial timescales: Physical processes, interpretative frame- works  and  a  new  multiple  cross-wavelet  transform  algorithm,  Earth-Science Reviews, 134, 1-15 (2014).

  34. W.  Soon, and  D.  R.  Legates, Solar  Irradiance  Modulation  of  Equator-to-Pole (Arctic) Temperature Gradients: Empirical Evidence for Climate Variation on Multi-decadal Timescales, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 93, 45-56 (2013).

  35. D. R. Legates, W. Soon, and W.M. Briggs, Learning and teaching climate science:  The perils of consensus knowledge using agnotology, Science and Education, 22, 2007-2017 (2013).

  36. W.  Soon,  K.  Dutta,  D.  R.  Legates,  V.  Velasco,  and  W.  Zhang,  Variation  in Surface  Air  Temperature  of  China  During  the  20th  Century,  Journal  of  Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 73, 2331-2344 (2011).

  37. R.  Agnihotri,  K.  Dutta,  and  W.  Soon,  Temporal  Derivative  of  Total  Solar  Irradiance and Anomalous Indian Summer Monsoon: An Empirical Evidence for a Sun-Climate Connection, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 73, 1980-1987 (2011).

  38. J. S. Armstrong, K. C. Green, W. Soon, Research on Forecasting for the Man-made Global Warming Alarm, Energy & Environment, 22,  1091-1104 (2011).

  39. W. Soon and D. R. Legates, Avoiding carbon myopia:  Three considerations for policy makers concerning manmade carbon dioxide, Ecology Law Currents, 37, 1-9 (2010).

  40. M. M. Katsova, M. A. Livshits, W. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, and D. D. Sokoloff, Differential  Rotation  of  some  HK-Project  stars  and  the  butterfly  diagrams, New Astronomy, 15, 274-281 (2010).

  41. K. Olah, Z. Kollath, T. Granzer, K. G. Strassmeier, A. F. Lanza, S. Jarvinen, H. Korhonen, S. L. Baliunas, W. Soon, S, Messina, and G. Cutispoto, Multiple and changing cycles of active stars.  II. Results, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 501, 701-713 (2009).

  42. K. C. Green, J. S. Armstrong, W. Soon, Validity of climate change forecasting for public policy decision making, International Journal of Forecasting, 25, 826-832 (2009).

  43. W. Soon, Comments on HESS Opinion ’A random walk on water’ by D. Koutsoyiannis, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 6, C2852- C2856 (2009).

  44. W.  Soon,  Solar  Arctic-mediated  climate  variation  on  multidecadal  to  centennial timescales: Empirical evidence, mechanistic explanation, and testable consequences, Physical Geography, 30, 144-184 (2009).

  45. J. Liu, B. Wang, Q. Ding, X. Kuang, W. Soon, E. Zorita, Centennial variations of the global monsoon precipitation in the last millennium: Results from ECHO-G model, Journal of Climate, 22, 2356-2371 (2009).

  46. M. Dyck, W. Soon (as co-first authors) et al., “Response to Dyck et al.  (2007) on polar bears and climate change in western Hudson Bay by Stirling et al.  (2008)”, Ecological Complexity, 5, 289-302 (2008).

  47. J.  S.  Armstrong,  K.  C.  Green,  W.  Soon,  Polar  bear  population  forecasts:   A public-policy forecasting audit, Interfaces, 38, 382-405 (2008) (plus 3 comments and our reply).

  48. G. W. Lockwood, B. A. Skiff, G. W. Henry, S. Henry, R.R. Radick, S.L. Baliunas, R.A. Donahue, and W. Soon, Patterns of photometric and chromospheric variations among sun-like  stars:  A  20-year  perspective,  Astrophysical  J.  Suppl. Series, 171, 260-303 (2007).

  49. W. Soon, Implications of the secondary role of carbon dioxide and methane forcing  in  climate  change:  Past,  present,  and  future,  Physical  Geography,  28, 97-125 (2007).

  50. M. Dyck,  W. Soon (as co-first authors) et al.  Polar Bears of Western Hudson Bay and Climate Change:  Warming Spring Air Temperatures as the ‘Ultimate’ Survival Control Factor?, Ecological Complexity, 4, 73-84 (2007).

  51. K. Olah, K. G. Strassmeier, T. Granzer, W. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, Changing stellar activity cycles, Astronomische Nachrichten, 328, 1072-1074 (2007).

  52. S. Baliunas, P. Frick, D. Moss, E. Popova, D. Sokoloff and W. Soon (alphabetical listing), Anharmonic and standing dynamo waves:  Theory and observation of stellar magnetic activity, Monthly Notices of the Royal  Astronomical Society, 365, 181 (2006).

  53. W. Soon, Variable solar irradiance as a plausible agent for multidecadal variations in the Arctic-wide surface air temperature record of the past 130 years, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, (2005).

  54. S. Baliunas, P. Frick, D. Moss, E. Popova, D. Sokoloff and W. Soon (alphabetical listing), Anharmonicity of Stellar Cycles:  A wavelet quantification, Solar Physics, 224, 179 (2004).

  55. P. Frick, W. Soon, E. Popova and S. Baliunas, Time-spectra of chromospheric activity of old solar-type stars: Detection of rotational signals from Double Wavelet Analysis, New Astronomy, 9, 599 (2004).

  56. J. Lin and W. Soon, Evolution of Morphological Features of CMEs Deduced from Catastrophe Model of Solar Eruptions, New Astronomy, 9, 611 (2004).

  57. W. Soon, D. R. Legates and S. Baliunas, Estimation and Representation of Long- Term (> 40 years) Trends of Northern-Hemisphere-Gridded Surface Temperature: A Note of Caution, Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L03209 (2004).

  58. W. Soon,  S. Baliunas,  and D. R. Legates,  Comment on “On Past Temperature and Anomalous Late-20th Century Warmth”, Eos, 84 (no.  44), 473 (2003).

  59. W. Soon, S. Baliunas, C. Idso, S. Idso and D. R. Legates, Reconstructing Climatic and Environmental Changes of the Past 1000 Years:  A Reappraisal, Energy & Environment, 14, 233 (2003).

  60. W.  Soon  and  S.  Baliunas,  Annual  Progress  Report  on  Global  Warming:  2001- 2002, Progress in Physical Geography, 27, 448 (2003).

  61. W. Soon, S. Baliunas, S. B. Idso, K. Ya. Kondratyev, and E. S. Posmentier, Reply to Comments on“Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions: Unknowns  and  uncertainties”  by  D.  J.  Karoly,  J.  F.  B.,  Mitchell,  M.  Allen,  G. Hegerl, J. Marengo, F. Zwiers, Climate Research, 24, 93 (2003).

  62. W. Soon and S. Baliunas, Climatic and Environmental Changes of the Last 1000 Years, Climate Research, 23, 89 (2003).

  63. J. Lin, W. Soon and S. Baliunas, Theories of Solar Eruptions:  A Review, New Astronomy Reviews, 47, 53 (2003).

  64. J. Lin, W. Soon and S. Baliunas, Eruptive processes in the solar atmosphere and the theories, (in Chinese), Chinese Science Bulletin, 47, 1601-1612 (2002).

  65. W. Soon, S. Baliunas, S. B. Idso, K. Ya. Kondratyev, and E. S. Posmentier, Reply to Comments on“Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions: Unknowns  and  uncertainties”  by  James  Risbey,  Climate  Research,  22,  187 (2002).

  66. W. Soon, S. Baliunas, S. B. Idso, K. Ya. Kondratyev, and E. S. Posmentier, Modeling climatic  effects of anthropogenic CO2  emissions:  Unknowns and un- certainties, Climate Research, 18, 259 (2001).

  67. W. Soon, S. Baliunas, K. S. Demirchan, S. B. Idso, K. Ya. Kondratyev, and E. S. Posmentier, The impact of anthropogenic CO2 emission on climate:  Unresolved Problems (in Russian), Proceedings of the Russian Geographical Society, 133, 1 (2001).

  68. W. H. Soon, E. S. Posmentier, and S. L. Baliunas, Climate hypersensitivity to solar forcing ? Annales Geophysicae, 18, 583 (2000).

  69. W. H. Soon,  S. L. Baliunas,  E. S. Posmentier,  and P. N. Okeke,  Variations of solar coronal hole area and terrestrial lower tropospheric air temperature from 1979 to Mid-1998, New Astronomy, 4, 563 (2000).

  70. G. W. Henry, S. L. Baliunas, R. A. Donahue, F. C. Fekel, and W. Soon, Photo- metric and Ca II H and K Spectroscopic Variations in Sun-like Stars with Planets III, Astrophysical J., 431, 415 (2000).

  71. E. S. Posmentier, W. H. Soon, and S. L. Baliunas (equal contribution by Posmentier and Soon), Natural variability in an-ocean-atmosphere climate model, Journal of Physics Malaysia, 19, 157 (2000).

  72. W. H. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, A. B. Robinson, and Z. W. Robinson, Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Climate Research, 13, 149 (1999).

  73. W.  Soon,  P.  Frick,  and  S.  Baliunas,  Lifetime  of  surface  features  and  stellar rotation:  A wavelet time-frequency approach, Astrophysical J. Letters, 510, L135 (1999).

  74. P. Frick, S. Baliunas, D. Galyagin, D. Sokoloff and W. Soon, Wavelet analysis of stellar chromospheric activity variations, Astrophysical J., 483, 426 (1997).

  75. S. Baliunas, P. Frick, D. Sokoloff and W. Soon (alphabetical listing with W. Soon as  lead  author),  Timescales  and  trends  in  the  Central  England  Temperature Data (1659-1990): A Wavelet Analysis, Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 1351 (1997).

  76. S. L. Baliunas, G. W. Henry, R. A. Donahue, F. C. Fekel, and W. H. Soon, Properties of Sun-like Stars with Planets: ρ1 Cancri, τ Bootis, and υ Andromedae, Astrophysical J. Letters, 474, L119 (1997).

  77. G. W. Henry, S. L. Baliunas, R. A. Donahue, W. H. Soon, and S. H. Saar, Properties of Sun-like Stars with Planets: 51 Pegasi, 47 Ursae Majoris, 70 Virginis, and HD 114762, Astrophysical J., 474, 503 (1997).

  78. W. H. Soon, E. S. Posmentier, and S. L. Baliunas, Inference of solar irradiance variability from terrestrial temperature changes, 1880-1993: An astrophysical application of the sun-climate connection, Astrophysical J., 472, 891 (1996).

  79. S. L. Baliunas, E. Nesme-Ribes, D. D. Sokoloff, W. H. Soon (alphabetical listing with  W.  Soon  as  lead  author),  A  Dynamo  Interpretation  of  Stellar  Activity Cycles, Astrophysical J., 460, 848 (1996).

  80. S. L. Baliunas, D. D. Sokoloff, W. H. Soon (alphabetical listing with W. Soon as  lead  author),  Magnetic  Field  and  Rotation  in  Lower  Main  Sequence  Stars: An Empirical Time-Dependent Magnetic Bode’s Relation?,  Astrophysical  J. Letters, 457, L99 (1996).

  81. S. L. Baliunas,  and W. H. Soon,  Are Variations in the Length of the Activity Cycle Related to Changes in Brightness in Solar-type Stars? Astrophysical J., 450, 896 (1995).

  82. H. J. Choi,  W. H. Soon,  R. A. Donahue,  S. L. Baliunas,  and G. W. Henry,  A Study of Variability in a Sample of G–K Giants, Publications  of  the  Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 107, 744 (1995).

  83. V. C. Cristian, R. A. Donahue, W. H. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, and G. W. Henry, Pulsation Timescales and Amplitudes in a Sample of Bright Semi-Regular Variable Stars, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 107, 411 (1995).

  84. S. L. Baliunas, R. A. Donahue, W. H. Soon, J. H. Horne, and others, Chromospheric variations in main-sequence stars. II, Astrophysical J., 438, 269 (1995).

  85. W. H. Soon, S. L. Baliunas and Q. Zhang, Variations in surface activity of the Sun and solar-type stars, Solar Physics, 154, 385 (1994).

  86. Q. Zhang, W. H. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, G. W. Lockwood, B. A. Skiff and R. R. Radick, A method of determining possible brightness variation of the Sun in past centuries from observations of solar-type stars, Astrophysical J. Letters, 427, L111 (1994).

  87. W.  H.  Soon,  Q.  Zhang,  S.  L.  Baliunas  and  R.  L.  Kurucz, The  Mount  Wilson Observatory metallicity index, CRV :  Comparison to other photometric systems, Astrophysical J., 416, 787 (1993).

  88. W. H. Soon, S. L. Baliunas and Q. Zhang, An interpretation of cycle periods of stellar chromospheric activity, Astrophysical J. Letters, 414, L33 (1993).

  89. J. A. Kunc and W. H. Soon, Maximum principal quantum numbers of the atomic hydrogen in the solar chromosphere and photosphere, Astrophysical J., 396, 364 (1992).

  90. W.  H.  Soon,  Analytical  cross  sections  and  rate  coefficients  for  H-H  inelastic collisions, Astrophysical J., 394, 717 (1992).

  91. J.  A.  Kunc  and  W.  H.  Soon,  Analytical  ionization  cross  sections  for  atomic collisions, J. Chem.  Phys., 95, 5738 (1991).

  92. J. A. Kunc and W. H. Soon, Electron Boltzmann equation in non-thermal plasmas, Phys.  Rev.  A, 43, 4409 (1991).

  93. W. H. Soon and J. A. Kunc, Kinetics and continuum emission of negative atomic ions in partially-ionized plasmas, Phys.  Rev.  A, 43, 723 (1991).

  94. W. H. Soon and J. A. Kunc,  Radiation of partially-ionized atomic hydrogen, Phys. Fluids B, 2, 2833 (1990).

  95. W. H. Soon and J. A. Kunc, Nitrogen-plasma continuum emission associated with N−(3P) and N−(1D) ions, Phys.  Rev.  A, 41, 4531 (1990).

  96. W. H. Soon and J. A. Kunc, Thermal nonequilibrium in partially-ionized atomic oxygen, Phys.  Rev.  A, 41, 825 (1990).

  97. J.  A.  Kunc  and  W.  H.  Soon,  Collisional-radiative  nonequilibrium  in  partially- ionized atomic nitrogen, Phys.  Rev.  A, 40, 5822 (1989).

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